Stem Methane Reforming (“SMR”)
SMR is a method for producing hydrogen by reacting high-temperature steam with natural gas feedstock under pressure with the presence of a catalyst to produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Then the CO reacts with steam to yield more hydrogen CO2 in a process called water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. SMR is a cost-effective and energy efficient way of producing hydrogen and is the most common method of hydrogen production.
CH4 + H2O + heat -> CO + 3 H2 (SMR)
CO + H2O -> CO2 + H2 + small heat (WGS)
Autothermal Reforming (“ATR”)
ATR is a process to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide by partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon feed such as natural gas with oxygen and carbon dioxide or steam and subsequent catalytic reforming. The reaction takes place in a single chamber where the methane is partially oxidized and the reaction is exothermic due to the oxidation.
2 CH4 + O2 + CO2 -> 3 H2 + 3 CO + H2O (using CO2)
4 CH4 + O2 + 2 H2O -> 10 H2 + 4 CO (using steam)
Hydrogen to Ammonia
hydrogen could be converted to ammonia which significantly reduces the volume and allows longer term storage and long-distance transport. In liquid state, ammonia can reduce the volume of hydrogen to 1/1300th which is favourable even compared with liquid hydrogen that reduces the volume to 1/800th.