Stem Methane Reforming (“SMR”)


SMR is a method for producing hydrogen by reacting high-temperature steam with natural gas feedstock under pressure with the presence of a catalyst to produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Then the CO reacts with steam to yield more hydrogen CO2 in a process called water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. SMR is a cost-effective and energy efficient way of producing hydrogen and is the most common method of hydrogen production.

CH4 + H2O + heat -> CO + 3 H2  (SMR)

CO + H2O -> CO2 + H2 + small heat  (WGS)

Autothermal Reforming (“ATR”)


ATR is a process to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide by partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon feed such as natural gas with oxygen and carbon dioxide or steam and subsequent catalytic reforming. The reaction takes place in a single chamber where the methane is partially oxidized and the reaction is exothermic due to the oxidation.

2 CH4 + O2 + CO2 -> 3 H2 + 3 CO + H2O  (using CO2)

4 CH4 + O2 + 2 H2O -> 10 H2 + 4 CO  (using steam)

Hydrogen to Ammonia


hydrogen could be converted to ammonia which significantly reduces the volume and allows longer term storage and long-distance transport. In liquid state, ammonia can reduce the volume of hydrogen to 1/1300th which is favourable even compared with liquid hydrogen that reduces the volume to 1/800th.

Gas to Ammonia.png

* Source : Tundra Engineering (May, 2021)

Carbon Capture & Storage (“CCS”)


Production of 1kg of hydrogen has associated production of ~ 10 kg of CO2, and the carbon capture plant can remove 67 ~ 90 % of the produced CO2. According to the Government of Alberta, Edmonton is one of the best location for CO2 injection in the world with enormous capacity for injection into an underground formation.  Alberta Carbon Trunk Line (ACTL) has a capacity to move 40,000 MT/d of CO2 from industrial area to injection sites, equivalent to 14.6 Million MT/y.

CCS - Air products.jpg
CCS - GOFA.jpg

* Source : ACTL systems and  Government of Alberta (2013)